By O. Norris. University of Texas at Tyler.
Attachment theory (Bowlby trusted 5 mg proscar, 1969, 1988) provides EFT with a developmental nonpathologizing theoretical context for understand- ing the importance of emotional bonds, interdependency, and adult love and intimacy. A brief overview of principles from these theories that have im- pacted EFT follows. SYSTEMS THEORY ROOTS Systems theory places an emphasis on the power of present interactions, especially patterned sequences and feedback loops, to direct and prohibit individual behavior (Watzlawick, Beavin, & Jackson, 1967). Systemic thera- pists make in-session process assessments based on present sequences of interactional behavior. The therapist is active and directive, using such in- terventions as reframing and creating enactments between family mem- bers (Butler & Gardner, 2003). The systemic therapist uses shifts in intensity to modify current problematic patterns within the family. This is done not only with the words chosen, but also with changes in tone, vol- ume, and pacing (Minuchin & Fishman, 1981). Although sharing in these historic systemic principles, the EFT focus on emotion and the inclusion of the concept of self differs from pure systemic models. The idea of emotion, often thought of as a "within" phenomenon, being a leading or organizing element in interactional cycles is not addressed in traditional versions of systems theory. The field is increasingly recogniz- ing that an understanding of emotional processing and a focus on self as de- fined in key interactions can be integrated into systems theory (Johnson, 1998; Linares, 2001; Nichols, 1987). Early systems theorists tended to rely heavily on mechanistic concepts, such as homeostasis. Von Bertalanffy him- self hated this application, believing it reduced a living organism to the level of a robotic machine (Nichols & Schwartz, 2003). Therefore, EFT views emo- tion as a primary signaling system that organizes key interactions in couple and family systems. EXPERIENTIAL ROOTS Greenberg and Johnson, coauthors of EFT, are trained in the humanistic experiential perspective as outlined by Rogers (1951) and Perls, Hefferline, EFT: An Integrative Contemporary Approach 183 and Goldman (1951). In experiential therapy, clients are led to experience, become aware of, and process their emotions. Emotions are seen as power- ful, healthy, informative, and organizational (Johnson, 1996).
The latter contains at least ﬁve dimensions: (1) the size of an individual’s social network; (2) the type of support Social Relationships they receive (e buy discount proscar 5 mg. The corollary also has received considerable Social integration, in the form of church attendance, attention, in that health has been shown to be related to has been shown to be related to lower functional impair- one’s degree of connectedness or one’s social relation- ment, better immune function, and reduced depressive ships. Among older African-American men, it also to better health, lower functional impairment, and mul- has been shown to decrease subsequent mortality. For ticipation in voluntary organizations also is related to example, unmarried and socially isolated individuals are lower mortality. Social support in the form of marriage at risk for higher mortality and morbidity, including has been empirically linked to fewer depressive symp- tuberculosis, accidents, and psychiatric disorders. Some data suggest marriage is more pro- ships documented patterns of greater and lesser health tective against mental illness for Caucasians than for and illness associated with social relationships. Higher levels of subjective social recently, researchers are exploring the underlying mech- support have been related to lower functional impair- anisms linking social ties and health. Do social relation- ment, better self-rated health, fewer depressive symp- ships prevent people from becoming ill? Do social relationships foster There is no evidence, however, relating this support to health by improving a sense of meaning or coherence in mortality. However, based on the evi- Evidence began to accumulate in the 1970s, when dence to date, leading researchers in the ﬁeld offer three researchers such as Cassel and Cobb and Berkman and conclusions. First, social support shows robust direct Syme pioneered the notion that social relationships effects on health outcomes. Third, support from friends is more produced stress on ulcers, hypertension, and neurosis in strongly related to health outcomes than family support.
Remember that visual aids are used to add to the content of the talk and should not 27 HOW TO PRESENT AT MEETINGS distract with garish colours purchase 5 mg proscar fast delivery, silly logos, and sound effects suitable for children’s television. The ready availability of computer software packages such as PowerPoint (Microsoft) means that it is easy to prepare clear slides. However, it is also possible to make a visual mess with this programme (see Chapter 5). Guidelines for slide preparation can be considered under the following headings: • general format • text • figures • tables. A problem with using programmes, such as PowerPoint, is that it is easy to present too many slides, so that the impression left with the audience may be literally that of a "moving picture show" as slides flash by. The absolute maximum number of slides is one for each minute of the talk and a more sensible rate of projection is six slides per ten minutes of talk. Avoid logos: most of the audience are not interested in where you work and know that they are attending the Third International Congress on Equine Euthanasia. Avoid frilly edges to the slide: the audience will think that you are a dress designer or worse; and avoid moving images, unless you want to ensure that the slide is not read. It is traditional to use a light colour on a dark background, such as yellow or white on a blue background and many different shades of these colours are available. The original technique was to use black lettering on white (a positive slide) and this is useful in situations in which the light in the lecture room can only be partially dimmed. Never use dark colours on a dark background – red on a dark blue background is a favourite combination and it is hopeless. Remember that the road signs in the UK are yellow on a dark green background or black on a white background because these combinations have been found to be the easiest to read. If you are unsure about the colours to use, let the Department of Transport be your guide.