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By X. Marus. University of the District of Columbia.

Differentiate subtypes and functions of sympa- the autonomic nervous system are stimulated 25mg clomiphene with visa. Identify physiologic effects of the parasympa- drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system. Differentiate subtypes and functions of parasympathetic nervous system receptors. Autonomic nerve im- pulses are carried through preganglionic fibers, ganglia, and The nervous system is composed of two main divisions, the postganglionic fibers. Preganglionic impulses travel from the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous CNS along the preganglionic nerves to ganglia. The central nervous system includes the composed of the terminal end of the preganglionic nerve and brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system in- clusters of postganglionic cell bodies. A neurotransmitter is cludes all the neurons and ganglia found outside the CNS. The postganglionic input from the periphery to the CNS and modify motor out- impulses travel from ganglia to effector tissues of the heart, put through the action of reflex arcs. The efferent neurons blood vessels, glands, other visceral organs, and smooth carry motor signals from the CNS to the peripheral areas of muscle (Fig. The efferent portion of the peripheral nervous sys- The main neurotransmitters of the ANS are acetylcholine tem is further subdivided into the somatic and autonomic ner- and norepinephrine (see Chap. The somatic nervous system innervates sized from acetylcoenzyme A and choline and released at skeletal muscles and controls voluntary movement. The ANS, preganglionic fibers of both the SNS and PNS and at post- without conscious thought or effort, controls involuntary activ- ganglionic fibers of the PNS. Acetylcholine is also released ities in the visceral organs of the body such as the heart, smooth from postganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate the muscle, and secretory glands. These functions can be broadly sweat glands and from motor neurons of the somatic ner- described as activities designed to maintain a constant inter- vous system that innervate the skeletal muscles.

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Such polynomial image warping may generic 100 mg clomiphene otc, however, be no more realistic than Hollywood special effects. As noted in Chapter 1, considerable cy- toarchitectonic variability exists from one brain to another. Statistical Analyses Statistical analyses may be performed for both functional localization and brain-behavior interactions. After data are averaged and smoothed, activations from one condition are subtracted from another con- dition. Tha absence of an activation that is expected may happen when the background noise exceeds the signal or the activation paradigm is inadequate. The units of these signals are arbitrary, depending on the magnetic field, the pulse sequence, and other factors that are not directly related to cerebral metabolism and blood flow. Correlation coefficients or t tests are not good measures of the magnitude of responses. Correlational tests may work best when carried out between the actual and predicted re- sponse for, e. The shape and amplitude of brain activation across voxels is fitted to a model of expected on and off signal responses during the time series by software programs. The problem of multiple comparisons in which all the voxel statistics are simultaneously assessed is ad- dressed in SPM by the theory of continuous random fields, which assumes that the statistic image is a good lattice representation of an underlying continuous stationary random field. The theory also permits the computation of corrected p values for clusters of voxels that exceed a chosen threshold and for entire sets of suprathreshold clus- ters, which allows more powerful statistical tests at the partial expense of the ability to localize voxels. Statistical parametric mapping, then, may smear or interpolate the region of activation over a larger area than actually has BOLD signals. Two approaches to data analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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