By I. Surus. Texas A&M University, Galveston. 2017.
Candidates are well advised to use the basic fund of knowledge accumulated from clin- ical experience and reading to solve the questions buy 20 mg cialis overnight delivery. Approaching the questions as “real-life” encounters with patients is far better than trying to second-guess the examiners or trying to analyze whether the question is tricky. There is no reason for the ABPM&R to trick the can- didates into choosing the wrong answers. It is better not to discuss the questions or answers (after the examination) with other candidates. Such discussions usually cause more consternation, although some candidates may derive a false sense of having performed well in the examination. In any case the can- didates are bound by their oath to the ABPM&R not to discuss or disseminate the questions. PART II EXAMINATION The Directors of the Board give the oral examinations, with the assistance of selected guest examiners. Three examiners examine the candidate, each examiner conducting a 40-minute segment of the total 120-minute examination. Candidates will be expected to present in a concise, orderly fashion evidence of the pro- ficiency in the management of various clinical conditions that come within the field of PM&R. During the oral examination, the examiner will ask questions about diagnostic pro- cedures, therapeutic procedures, and patient management. The candidate should be prepared to demonstrate familiarity with the literature of basic and clinical research, as well as recent significant literature pertinent to PM&R. Conciseness xxx BOARD CERTIFICATION and clarity of statements are expected. Evidence of the professional maturity of the candidate in clinical procedures and factual knowledge will be sought.
Any bone can be mas cialis 10 mg mastercard, usually in the long bones, pelvis and, less common- affected (⊡ Fig. The facial skull and cranium are hardly ever The lesions are strictly unilateral. The most important clinical problems are the progressive shortening of the bowed extremity and, Historical background, Etiology, pathogenesis, occasionally, pathological fractures. The Prognosis, treatment enchondromatosis involves a hamartomatous proliferation The most important prognostic factor is malignant de- of chondrocytes derived both from the bone itself and the generation, for which the risk appears to be much greater periosteum. Histological investigations have shown that than for multiple osteochondromas. Cases oc- always transform into a chondrosarcoma, although osteo- cur sporadically and are rare, although fairly large series sarcomas and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas can also with approx. This particularly ap- tion does not affect one side more than the other. The arrows indicate the multiple enchondromas, which are all (c) and lower leg (d) of an 8-year old boy with enchondromatosis(Ollier located in the left half of the body 681 4 4. The Albright tures, correction of the axial deformities and leg lengthen- syndrome was described by McCune in 1936 and by ing procedures ( Chapter 4. Where deformities are treated surgically, care is The disease appears to involve an abnormality of the also required in avoiding excessive contamination of the osteogenic mesenchyme. In contrast with fibrous liferates in the medulla of bone and also attacks the corti- dyplasia, there is a probable risk of tumor propagation. Histologically the polyostotic and monostotic forms are identical ( Chapter 4. The condi- The Maffucci syndrome is a condition with unilaterally tion involves mosaic change in the genetic sturcture with occurring enchondromas (as in Ollier disease), combined differing degrees of penetrance. The manifestation of the The disease was described by Maffucci in 1881.
The cysts are clearly benign and have a histologic constitution resembling that of a ganglion cyst cialis 20mg low cost. Baker described the lesions in 1887, giving rise to the eponym of Baker’s cyst. Differential diagnosis includes subcutaneous lipomas, popliteal aneurysms, and benign and malignant tumors. All of these should be readily differentiated by radiographic texture, abnormal pulsation, computed tomography (CT) scanning or MRI if the cyst lies in an unusual location. After many years of surgical extirpation, with very frequent recurrences, sanity has begun to prevail, and recognition of the natural history of the disease is now being well appreciated. The vast majority of cysts will either recede in size or disappear within a two- to three-year period after clinical presentation or almost always by puberty. It is to be remembered that ganglions most commonly occur on the dorsal or volar aspects of the wrist and often communicate with the joint. In the absence of clinical symptoms, all cysts should be observed periodically and surgery should be avoided. Operations are generally reserved for those rare children who are suffering from signiﬁcant pain and whose cysts persist until puberty. Anteroposterior radiograph of the thoracolumbar spine showing Spastic torticollis a thoracolumbar scoliosis. In addition to the far more common congenital muscular torticollis, there is a type of torticollis or “wryneck” that appears in the toddler to adolescent age group that is associated with either inﬂammatory conditions in the cervical region, traumatic lesions, tumors or neurogenic disorders. The obvious implication is that the source of the “wryneck” is secondary to some other medical condition apart from the sternocleidomastoid muscle. One of the more common reasons for a spastic torticollis is atlantoaxial rotary From toddler to adolescence 72 “subluxation. Typically the children “splint” and resist any attempts to rotate the head or the neck. The term rotary displacement is probably more appropriate inasmuch as it is uncommon to document any true radiographic subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint. Fortunately the condition resolves almost invariably and spontaneously, with or without treatment (physical therapy, traction, heat).
This decrease in the immune response explains why bacteria that in normal hosts are not harmful present a high risk to burned patients generic 20 mg cialis with mastercard. The avascular burn eschar is rapidly colonized despite the use of antimicrobial agents. If this bacterial density exceeds the immune defenses of the host, then invasive burn sepsis may ensue. When bacterial wound counts are 105 micro-organisms per gram of tissue, risk of wound infection is great, skin graft survival is poor, and wound closure is delayed. The goals of wound management are the prevention of desiccation of viable tissue and the control of bacteria. Bacterial counts less than 103 organisms per gram of tissue are not usually invasive and allow skin graft survival rates of more than 90%. The isolation of Streptococcus in the wound should be considered an exception to the former, since bacterial counts of less than 103 bacteria per gram of tissue can provoke invasive burn wound infection and should be treated. Great debate still exists regarding the appropriate isolation regimen for burn patients. For decades, burned patients were treated in dedicated burn centers with strict isolation techniques. It is now common knowledge, however, that burned patients do become infected from endogenous gram-negative flora. Cross-contamination among patients is minimal; therefore, the standard practice of strict isolation is no longer needed. In general, barrier nursing and hand washing after every patient contact should suffice to control infection in the burn unit. More strict measures need to be implemented with the appearance of multiple resistant organisms. Studies from several burn centers have laid to rest the idea that prophylactic antibiotics should be given to burn patients. It increases strains of multiple resistant organisms and challenges the posterior management of burn patients.