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By F. Goran. Bennington College. 2017.

My first question for this topic would be: do you really want to find out how many of the local residents are inter- 12 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS ested 20 mg levitra super active with visa, or do you want to find out the interests of resi- dents with children of the appropriate age who would ac- tually use the scheme? If the latter is the case, this narrows down the research population and makes it more manageable. Finding out whether someone is interested in something is not actually the same as finding out whether someone would use the service. For example, I might think a play scheme is a good idea for other children as it might keep them off the streets, but not for my little darlings who are too occupied with their computer. If I said ‘yes, I am interested’, this could be misleading as I have no in- tention of using the service. However, if the purpose of the research is to obtain funding for the scheme, then the more people who express an interest, the better, although the tenants’ association would have to be careful not to produce misleading information. I would also find out whether the tenants’ association was interested only in the issue of how many people were interested in it and would use the play scheme. If they were doing this research anyway, would it be a va- luable addition to find out what sort of scheme resi- dents would like, and what activities their children would like? HOW TO DEFINE YOUR PROJECT / 13 SUMMARY X You must take time to think about your research as this will save you problems later. X When you’re thinking about your research, ask your- self the five ‘Ws’: – What is my research? X Discuss your sentence with your tutor or boss and re- vise if there is any confusion. The first thing you need to do is to think about your research methodology. This is the philosophy or the general princi- ple which will guide your research. It is the overall ap- proach to studying your topic and includes issues you need to think about such as the constraints, dilemmas and ethical choices within your research. Now that you have read Chapter 1, some of these issues will be fresh in your mind. Your research methodology is different to your research methods – these are the tools you use to gather data, such as questionnaires or interviews, and these will be discussed in Chapter 3.

Its chemical properties allow it to be administered without the propylene glycol carrier required for phenytoin buy 20mg levitra super active with mastercard, which is responsible for many of the potentially severe side effects of IV phenytoin administration. Fosphenytoin (or phenytoin) begins to act 10–30 min after IV administration. Given in a loading dose, these drugs reach a therapeutic level fairly rapidly, without signifi- cant respiratory depression or sedation. Following resolution of SE, fosphenytoin treatment can be converted to oral phenytoin maintenance therapy. Phenobarbital Phenobarbital can be used for SE in all age groups, and continues to be the medication of choice for neonatal seizures. Since respiratory and CNS depression are common side effects, phenobarbital is typically used to treat SE only after benzodiazepines and phenytoin have failed. Sodium Valproate TM An intravenous formulation of sodium valproate (Depacon ) is now available and may be effective in the treatment of SE in children and adults. It can be given as a loading dose, with subsequent maintenance dosing, and is not significantly sedating. The child should receive further treatment in an intensive care unit setting, and airway should be protected and ventilation controlled via intubation. Aggressive pharmacologic therapy should be applied with the goal of immediately stopping SE. Options include high dose barbiturates (pentobarbital and phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (midazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam), as well as other IV anesthetic agents including thiopental, lidocaine, and inhalational anesthetics including isoflurane and propofol. Pentobarbital has been the most widely used agent in refractory SE, usually titrated to suppression of EEG background. Midazolam is better tolerated and less sedating, although the frequency of breakthrough seizures may be higher.

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It is impracticable as well as potentially dangerous to practise these procedures on human volunteers levitra super active 20mg with mastercard. Adult and paediatric manikins are available from several manufacturers worldwide; this chapter concentrates on those generally available in the United Kingdom. Manikin selection: general principles Training requirements The growing number of different manikins available today can make choosing which manikin to purchase a complex process. Manikins are vital for learning practical cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills The most important question to ask initially is: which skills need to be acquired? This will obviously depend on the class under instruction; the requirements of a lay class will be quite different from those of professional hospital staff learning advanced life support skills. For large classes it may be better to maximise the practical hands-on exposure by investing in several cheaper With all manikins, realistic appearance, manikins rather than rely on one or two expensive, more accurate anatomical landmarks, and an appropriate response to any attempted complex models. Models vary greatly in sophistication, but most provide some qualitative indication that technique is adequate, such as audible clicks when the depth of chest compression is correct. Some manikins incorporate sensors that recognise the correct hand position and the rescuer’s attempts at shaking, opening the airway, and Resuscitation skills that can be practised palpation of a pulse. The depths of ventilation and chest on manikins compression may also be recorded. An objective assessment of Basic life support performance may be communicated to the student or ● Manual airway control with or without instructor by means of flashing lights, meters, audible signals, simple airway adjuncts or graphical display on a screen. A permanent record may be ● Pulse detection obtained for subsequent study or certification. A score, indicating the number of correct ● Precordial thump manoeuvres, may form the basis of a test of competence.

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